Parousia of Jesus Christ
Rev. Charles Cooper
Greek language is generally conceded to be the most effective vehicle
ever developed for expressing thought. Its possibilities of subtle
distinction in the expression of thought are vast, and the writers
of the New Testament were remarkably adept at using the finer capacities
of the language." (1) This among other reasons explains why God
chose to record the New Testament in Koine (common) Greek. However,
with the split of the church between the Greek speaking people of
the East and the Latin speaking people of the West, the need for
an authorized Latin translation of the Bible in the West became
imperative. In A.D. 383, Pope Damasus commissioned a young scholar
to translate the Greek manuscripts of the New Testament and the
Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) into Latin.
This monumental work would eventually acquire the name Vulgate
which means current. (2) The importance of the Latin Vulgate
is very significant.
for hundreds of years the only Bible in universal use in Europe.
. . (I)t has given to us much of our modern theological terminology
as well as being the sponsor for many Gr[eek] words which have
enriched our conceptions. (3)
important examples of "modern theological terminology" that tie
directly to the Latin Vulgate are the terms rapture and advent.
The English term rapture comes from the Latin word rapere
which means "to seize." The translator of the Latin Vulgate chose
this term to translate the Greek verb harpazo (to catch away)
in I Thessalonians 4:17. The term advent comes from the Latin
word adventus which means "arrival." The Latin Vulgate uses
this term to translate the Greek term parousia. Therefore,
when we use rapture and advent to refer to the Lord
Jesus' return, we are using loaned words from Latin.
and second advent are key phrases used to describe
events associated with the next major phase in the earthly career
of Jesus Christ. One of two problems with these phrases is the seemingly
forgotten fact that none of them actually appear in the Greek New
Testament. While these terms were adequate for a Latin translation
1500 years ago, they are not adequate for an English translation
today. No modern English translation of the Bible utilizes these
terms. The second problem with these phrases is the lack of biblical
preciseness. This lack of biblical preciseness has contributed greatly
to the confusion regarding the timing of Christ's coming
and the events that will occur in conjunction with that coming.
Well meaning men and women are mislead into thinking that the "rapture"
of the church and the second "advent" of Christ are two different
and unrelated events, the rapture occurring years before the advent
of Christ at the battle of Armageddon. For example, they would say
that the parousia found in I Thessalonians 4:15 is the rapture
parousia and the parousia referred to in the Olivet
Discourse (Matt. 24:3), the Armageddon parousia.
it is the thesis of this article that the parousia (coming)
is a biblically precise (technical) term that in each and every
usage concerning Christ's return, is referring to a general time
span that is initiated by the rapture of the church, through to
and including the final event of Christ's coming, the battle of
Verses Non-Technical Usage
matter we must deal with concerns the question of whether or not
parousia is a technical term that covers the future ministry
of Christ. Specifically, we are talking about the timeframe that
is initiated when He returns to receive the church to Himself, to
the time He comes with His armies for the battle of Armageddon.
A technical term is a designation given to a word or phrase in light
of the fact that a certain meaning is conveyed each and every time
it is used. An example of a technical term in Paul's writings is
Kalein (to call). It is a technical term "that carries the
content 'God designates as (or causes to be) a Christian.' It is
God's action of bestowing upon a person eternal salvation." (4)
Therefore, Paul argues that salvation by grace through faith is
a gift of God. Each time Paul uses this term he means the exact
same thing. Can a case be made for parousia as a technical
term in the New Testament? That is, can a single precise meaning
be designated for parousia each and every time it occurs
in the New Testament?
of A Non-Technical Usage
very little debate concerning the fact that parousia was
a technical term outside the New Testament. Extant manuscripts evidence
solid usage of parousia. Adolf G. Deissmann states, "From
the Ptolemaic period down into the 2nd cent[ury] A.D. we are able
to trace the word in the East as a technical expression for the
arrival or the visit of the king or the emperor." (5) Few would
debate Deissmann on this point. However, with regards to New Testament
usage, Dr. John F. Walvoord writes, "As used in the New Testament,
it [parousia] is obviously not a technical word. . . " (6)
He further writes, contrary to how the term is used outside the
N.T., "It is clear, at least, that no technical meaning for the
term is established which would limit its use to either one or the
other, i.e., the rapture or the second coming." (7) "It is the viewpoint
of the writer [Walvoord] that [parousia is] used in a general
and not a technical sense and that [it is] descriptive of both the
rapture and the glorious return of Christ to earth." (8) Walvoord's
comments reflect a change in the thinking of Pretribulationalists
during the early 1940s. Dr. Richard R. Reiter writes,
to the mid 1940s, pretribulationists generally viewed the Greek
words parousia ("coming"), epiphaneia ("appearing"),
and apokalupsis ("revelation") as technical terms specifying
distinct phases of the return. They interpreted parousia
as Christ's appearance in the sky including the Rapture of the
church to meet Him in the air (I Thess. 4:16-17). By contrast
epiphaneia and apokalupsis referred to the return
of Christ to earth with His saints following the Great Tribulation
(2 Thess. 2:8; 1 Peter 1:7), [Emphasis added]. (9)
have had a change in perspective on this matter is also supported
by the comment of Keith L. Brooks,
fully aware of the discussion that has been going on over the
Greek words 'parousia' (personal presence) and 'apokalupsis' (unveiling
or revelation). Perhaps some excellent teachers have been mistaken
in saying that the 'parousia' always indicates the moment
when He comes for His saints and that 'apokalupsis' is used only
for the moment when He comes in power and authority [Emphasis
the pretribulationalists' change in perspective after the 1940s
is wrong. Basically, the pretribulationist's solution to the matter
is to adopt a two parousia eschatology. In the absence of
a clearly explicit statement that there are two future parousias,
the reader is left debating which passages refer to the first parousia
and which passages refer to the second parousia. The prewrath
position believes that there is only one future parousia
of Christ and, using the word in the technical sense, it refers
to Christ's coming in general, including both the snatching away
of believers and the battle of Armageddon, thus removing the debate
about which passages refer to which parousia.
of A Technical Usage
to the use of parousia in the New Testament, BAGD, a very
respected Greek lexicon in use today, states that parousia
is used "in a special technical sense. . . of Christ.11 James E.
Frame in the International Critical Commentary Series states,
is used untechnically in I Cor. 16:17, II Cor. 7:6-7, 10:10, Phil.
1:26 and 2:12. . . Whether the technical use ([I Thess.] 2:19,
3:13, 4:14, 5:23; II Thess. 2:1, 8 and I Cor. 15:23. . . ) is
a creation of the early church. . . or is taken over from an earlier
period. . . is uncertain. (12)
a difference between the technical and untechnical usage of parousia.
Frame is supported by Leon Morris when he states, "In the New Testament
it [parousia] became a technical expression for the royal
visit, the second coming of our Lord." (13) Tracy L. Howard also
supports a technical sense for parousia when he says, "In
the New Testament the word takes on a technical sense for the future
advent of Christ." (14)
on parousia, D. Michael Martin writes, "Paul used the word
to refer both to his own visits to his churches. . . and in the
more technical sense of a divine or regal visitation (as when referring
to the coming of the Lord. . . ). (15) Robert D. Culver when explaining
Paul's use of parousia in I Corinthians 15:20-24 states,
"Deismann (sic). . . has shown that parousia (presence, coming)
was the technical term for the arrival of a potentate or his representatives.
That it usually—this text included—signifies in the New Testament
the coming of Christ to set up the Messianic kingdom accords with
this definition, and is the opinion of many modern commentators."
(16) Both Mueller and Eerdman writing in The International Standard
Bible Encyclopedia support the conclusion that parousia
is a technical term in the New Testament. (17)
point, we are able to conclude that scholars are divided concerning
whether parousia is a technical term or not. The final determination
must be made in light of its usage.
parousia is variously translated. Dr. W. Harold Mare writes,
"A brief look at Parousia in Liddell-Scott's A Greek-English
Lexicon shows that this word was used from the Homeric period
down through that of the NT, with meanings ranging from the presence
of persons to their arrival or advent. (18) Dr. John
F. Walvoord argues that parousia "has come to mean not simply
presence but the act by which the presence is brought about,
i.e., by the coming of the individual." (19) Hogg and
Vine take the opposite view.
translation is misleading, because 'coming' is more appropriate
to other words. . . the difference being that whereas these words
fix the attention on the journey to, and the arrival at, a place,
parousia fixes it on the stay which follows on the arrival
there. It would be preferable, therefore, to transliterate the
word rather than translate it, that is to use 'parousia,' rather
than 'coming,' wherever the reference is to the Lord Jesus. (20)
concerning whether parousia emphasizes different arrivals
of Christ for different purposes, or a singular arrival and the
presence of Christ that is initiated by the rapture of the church
and ending with the battle of Armageddon, forces a choice between
one or the other for every passage where parousia occurs.
is an over simplification. As a technical term, parousia
would represent a multifaceted event each time beginning with the
rapture of the church. Each passage must be evaluated in light of
this context. Hogg and Vine's suggestion that parousia be
transliterated instead of translated is a good one. This allows
the reader to evaluate each passage in light of the context for
him or herself. Hogg and Vine offer one other suggestion which is
worthy of our attention. They indicate that "The Parousia of the
Lord Jesus is thus a period with a beginning, a course,
and a conclusion." (italic added) (21) I am in agreement
with this point, however, I do not agree with their division of
this period concerning what events will happen and when they will
parousia is used twenty-four times in the New Testament.
(23) Of these twenty-four occurrences, seventeen refer to the coming
of Jesus in the future (24) (1 Thess. 2:19, 3:13, 4:15, 5:23; 2
Thess. 2:1, 8; 1 Cor. 15:23; Jas 5.7, 8; 2 Pet. 1:16, 3:4, 12; 1
Jn 2:28; Mat. 24:3, 27, 37 and 39). Dr. John F. Walvoord indicates
that all the verses above refer to the rapture with the exception
of Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Thess. 3:13; 2 Thess. 2:8 and 2 Pet.
1:16 which refer to the second coming of Christ at the battle of
Armageddon. (25) However, if parousia in the seventeen future
oriented verses can be shown to refer to the same event, then sufficient
grounds would be established to warrant designating parousia
as a technical term whenever it is used in connection with the future
return of Jesus Christ.
seventeen occurrences of parousia in the N.T. which refer
to the future ministry of Jesus Christ in chronological order, we
begin with the reference in the book of James. (26) James 5:7-8
therefore, brethren, until the coming [parousia] of the
Lord. Behold, the farmer waits for the precious produce of the
soil, being patient about it, until it gets the early and late
rains. You too be patient; strengthen your hearts, for the coming
[parousia] of the Lord is at hand.
of James is specifically addressed "to the twelve tribes which are
scattered abroad. . . " These Jewish Christians (the righteous remnant
of Israel) are urged to exercise patience until the parousia
of Christ. In light of the nearness of Christ's parousia,
James comforts the suffering Jewish Christians with the knowledge
that Jesus, "the Judge is standing at the door," (James 5:9). Surely
James is emphasizing the beginning of Christ's parousia.
The suffering that James' audience was experiencing was to be alleviated
at Christ's parousia. James uses the Greek preposition heos
which is translated "until" which in this context basically
refers to the period up to the parousia. The very beginning
of Christ's parousia spells relief for God's people because
when Christ comes, the parousia referred to in this passage,
will be initiated by the rapture of the church.
up James' teaching concerning Christ's coming to bring relief to
His people in the Thessalonian Letters. He writes to the Thessalonians,
"For they themselves declare. . . how you turned to God from idols
to serve the living and true God and to wait for His Son from heaven.
. . " Paul uses a term here that means "to await." Interestingly,
the end of each chapter in this letter ends with a reference to
the Lord's return. In I Thessalonians 2:19, 3:13, 4:15, and 5:23
the term parousia is used. The first example of the term
parousia in the writings of Paul is in I Thessalonians 2:19
which states, "For who is our hope or joy or crown of exultation?
Is it not even you, in the presence of our Lord Jesus at His coming
[parousia]?" The Thessalonian church was composed of mostly
Gentiles with some Jews. (27) Paul informs the Thessalonians that
they are his hope and joy in the presence of Christ at His parousia.
Along with this, Paul adds a prayer that Jesus will cause love to
grow among the Thessalonians, "so that He may establish your hearts
unblamable in holiness before our God and Father at the coming [parousia]
of our Lord Jesus with all His saints," (I Thess. 3:13). This is
the second example of parousia in Paul's writings. Like I
Thess. 2:19, here Paul is emphasizing the beginning of Christ's
parousia. BADG indicates that the preposition en,
translated "in" denotes "the point of time when something occurs."
(28) This is Paul's favorite preposition to introduce the Lord's
example of the term parousia in Paul's writings occurs in
I Thess. 4:15. Paul instructs the Thessalonians that those who survive
until the time of Christ's parousia will be taken to be with
the Lord when He comes from heaven. This is an event certainly connected
with the beginning of Christ's parousia when the believer
is removed and the wrath of God is poured out on those who remain.
example occurs in connection with I Thess. 5:23. Paul prays that
the Lord will preserve the Thessalonians blameless until the parousia
of Christ. Again, Paul emphasizes an action connected with the beginning
of Christ's parousia. No indication is given that the Thessalonians
need perseverance through Christ's parousia, but only up
until or at the start of it, when the believer will be removed and
the wrath of God will be poured out on those who remain.
example of parousia in the Thessalonians Letters occurs in
II Thess. 2:1 and it reads, "Now brethren, concerning the coming
(parousia) of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together
to Him, we ask you. . . " What Paul alludes to in I Thess. 4:15-17
in detail, he summarizes here. Paul places himself in the same category
as the Thessalonians. They will be gathered together at the parousia
of Christ. Consistent with Paul's references in I Thessalonians,
the emphasis is on the beginning of the event.
and final occurrence of parousia in the Thessalonian Letters
is in II Thess. 2:8. Paul acknowledges that Jesus will slay the
lawless one "with the breath of His mouth" and will destroy him
"with the brightness of His coming," (parousia). Pretribulationalists
debate this verse because of its obvious connection with the lawless
one. They assign this verse to a second parousia which happens
at Armageddon when Christ comes with His saints. However, there
is no explicit biblical statement that the church accompanies
Christ at Armageddon. There is no textually explicit indication
that there are two parousias presented in the N.T. There is a simple
and more logical explanation of the data presented in the N.T.,
namely the prewrath position.
fact argues against the pretribulational interpretation of II Thess.
2:8. After Antichrist recovers from his wound, he is not physically
killed again. Revelation 19:20 indicates that at Armageddon he will
be "cast alive into the lake of fire burning with brimstone." A
closer examination of II Thess. 2:8 reveals that the verb "slay"
does not have its usual literal meaning. Rather, "(t)he verb is
frequently used to designate murder; the end of the lawless one
will be as decisive as that of a man who is murdered." (29) The
verb "bring to an end" better explains Paul's intent. Leon Morris
captures the essence of the verse when he writes, "In the present
passage the verb refers to the robbing of the Man of Lawlessness
of all significance, rather than to his destruction. . . " (30)
A literal translation of Paul's intended meaning in II Thess. 2:8
would be, "And then that lawless one will be revealed whom the Lord
will overthrow with the breath of His mouth and render insignificant
by the appearance of His coming. . . " Therefore, Paul is not indicating
that Antichrist will be physically killed at the Lord's second parousia
as pretribbers teach. But rather, the Lord will diminish the significance
of Antichrist. First, the Lord will cut short the persecution of
Antichrist by taking away the object of his persecution as the Lord
predicted in Matthew 24:22. The church will be snatched away to
heaven. Second, the Day of the Lord's wrath begins "and the Lord
alone will be exalted in that day," (Is. 2:17).
place in the writings of Paul where the term parousia occurs
is I Corinthian 15:23 which states, "But each one in his own order:
Christ the firstfruits, afterward those who are Christ's at His
coming (parousia)." Paul informs the Corinthians who were
predominately Gentile that the next phase of the first resurrection
will occur at Christ's parousia. Few would argue that Paul
emphasizes an action that is connected with the beginning of Christ's
parousia here. It is important to recognize that Paul places
the emphasis in all six verses where he uses the word parousia
on the beginning of Christ's one and only parousia.
Peter also makes a contribution to our discussion. He says, "For
we did not follow cunningly devised fables when we made known to
you the power and coming (parousia) of our Lord Jesus Christ,
but were eyewitnesses of His majesty." Some have concluded that
Peter is here discussing the first coming of Christ. However, Lenski
argues, "The double terms have but one article: "the power of our
Lord Jesus Christ and Parousia," so that "power and Parousia" constitute
one idea, "power" bringing out the thought of the omnipotent might
involved in the Lord's second coming. . . " (31) It would appear
that Peter is speaking to the end result of the Day of the Lord,
rather than emphasizing the beginning or the course of the Lord's
parousia. Peter describes the ultimate result unlike the
Revelation of Jesus Christ to His bond-servants which indicate that
the destruction of the earth will progressively worsen until Armageddon.
Peter's second reference to Christ's parousia occurs in II
Peter 3:3-4. Peter informs the readers that "scoffers will come
in the last days. . . saying, 'Where is the promise of His coming
(parousia)?'" Few would argue that this is not a reference
to the beginning of the Lord's future ministry on earth. Given that
once the church is removed from the earth, "all things" certainly
will not "continue as they were from the beginning of creation."
Peter's final reference occurs in II Peter 3:12. In this verse,
it is "the day of God" that is coming (parousia). The fact
that Peter refers to the Day of the Lord in 3:10 with the same results
as the day of God in 3:12 , supports the conclusion that they are
one and the same. Here we find a reference to events that will transpire
during the course of our Lord's parousia. The divine wrath
that will destroy the created order follows the removal of the church
at the beginning of Christ's parousia.
John has only one example of parousia. "And now, little children,
abide in Him, that if He appears, we may have confidence and not
be ashamed before Him at His coming (parousia)," I John 2:28.
John's use of that little word if introduces a third class
condition which indicates that something may or may not happen.
What is conditional here is not the event itself (Christ will return),
but the uncertainty of the timing of Christ's return. The fact that
John adds an element of uncertainty requires that we understand
this passage as a reference to Christ's future ministry of removing
the church before the wrath of God begins. There is uncertainty
about the timing of the beginning of the Lord's parousia,
but there is no uncertainty about the period following the conclusion
of Daniel's Seventieth Week. Consistent with Paul and Peter, John's
focus is on the beginning of the parousia.
four examples of parousia in the N.T. with reference to the
future ministry of Christ occur in Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, and 39.
These are the most controversial passages concerning the use of
parousia! Pretribbers want to make these passages a reference
to the battle of Armageddon only, rather than a reference to the
overall event of Christ's coming, beginning with the rapture of
the church. Matthew's employment of parousia is most instructive.
The disciples' question and the Lord's answer provide a detailed
explanation of end-time events that form the basis of the teachings
of Paul, Peter, James, and John. Matthew, who wrote his gospel after
Paul, Peter, James, and John wrote their epistles, would certainly
have offered some corrective insight if his use of the term parousia
was different than that of Paul, Peter, James, and John. Matthew
on several occasions explains to his readers information that clarifies
something he wrote. He explained Hebrew and Aramaic words so that
his readers would better understand his points. He quotes O.T. passages
to explain N.T. events. One should conclude that Matthew means the
exact same thing as Paul, Peter, James and John by his use of the
term parousia. Matthew specifically uses this term to tie
together the teachings of Christ and His Apostles. Matthew emphasizes
the beginning of Christ's parousia in all four occurrences.
we say then? Is the parousia of Christ that future ministry
of Jesus Christ which is initiated by the snatching away of the
saints, followed by the punishment of the wicked? The answer is
an emphatic yes! The parousia in Matthew is the same that
is in Paul, Peter, James and John. Other than God's revelation to
Jesus recorded by John, Matthew gives the most detailed outline
of end-time events. Paul, Peter, James, and John fill in a few blanks
and restate a few of the details given by Matthew. The chart below
summarizes the N.T. teachings concerning the parousia of
Christ. Notice the parallelism between the Olivet Discourse and
the teachings of the Apostles.
Olivet Discourse on the PAROUSIA of Christ
PAROUSIA Outside the Gospels
return of Christ is called "His parousia" by Peter,
James, John, and Andrew (Mt. 24:3; Mk. 13:3).
(1 Co. 15:23), James (Ja. 5:7-11), Peter (2 Pe. 3:4), and
John (1 Jn. 2:28-29) all call the return of Christ a parousia.
parousia of Christ will be seen and heard universally (Mt.
parousia of Christ will be seen and heard universally (1 Th.
parousia of Christ will follow the days of great tribulation
of Antichrist (Mt. 24:15-22, 29).
parousia of Christ will follow the persecution of Antichrist
(2 Th. 2:1-10).
have no need to be warned about the parousia of Christ (Mt.
Believers have no need to be misled concerning the sequence
of events during the end times (2 Th. 2:1-10).
Day of the Lord is associated with the parousia of Christ
Day of the Lord is associated with the parousia of Christ
(2 Th. 2:1-10).
unbelievers of the Earth will suffer at Christ's parousia
will be punished at Christ's parousia (2 PE 3:4; JA 5:7-12).
parousia of Christ will be with power and great glory (Mt.
"brightness of His parousia" will bring Antichrist's
persecution to an end (2 Th. 2:8).
are identified with the parousia of Christ (Mt. 24:31).
are identified with the parousia of Christ (1 Th. 3:11-13).
will send His angels to gather the elect from everywhere at
His parousia (Mt. 24:31; Mk. 13:27).
next phase of the resurrection occurs at the parousia of Christ
(1 Co. 15:23; 1 Th. 4:16).
sending of the angels will be accompanied by a great blast
of a trumpet (Mt. 24:31).
parousia will be accompanied by the trumpet of God (1 Co.
15:23; 1 Th. 4:13-18).
saints will be delivered at the parousia (Mt. 24:13, 29-31).
are to expect deliverance at the parousia of Christ (JA 5:7-11).
disciples are warned that a negative judgment could result
at the parousia of Christ (Mt. 24:45-51).
and John warn believers that negative judgment could result
at the parousia of Christ (1 Th. 5:23; 1 Jn. 2:28-29).
like Dr. Walvoord argue for a non-technical designation of parousia.
This allows them to teach two parousias separated by seven
years. Posttribulationists support a technical designation for parousia.
This allows them to teach that the parousia of Christ will
involve the deliverance of believers and the punishment of the wicked.
They teach that believers are caught up to meet Jesus in the air
and then will immediately come back to earth for Armageddon. The
prewrath position recognizes the fact that the truth is a synthesis
of these two positions. Parousia is not a technical term
in general throughout the NT It is, however, used in a technical
sense in the seventeen NT references to Christ's future return.
"The grandeur of the Lord, the honor due him at his arrival, and
the significance of his coming for both his enemies and his friends
are all implicit in the technical use of the term parousia."
(32) The technical sense covers the timeframe from the coming of
Christ to snatch away the church until the ultimate destruction
of the wicked at Armageddon. The time between these events is neither
immediate, i.e. no time, as posttribbers teach nor divided by seven
years as pretribbers insist. At best, all that can be said about
the time interval between the beginning and the end of the Lord's
parousia, is that it will be a single event no less
than six months (the fifth trumpet judgment will last five months
[Rev. 9:5] and Armageddon occurs at the end of the 30 day reclamation
period [Dan. 12:11]), and no more than two to three years
(the time necessary to accomplish all the trumpet and bowl judgments
of God's wrath once the great tribulation is cut short by Christ's
parousia in the second half of Daniel's 70th Week).
of Christ will cut short the persecution of Satan/Antichrist, (Matt.
24:22, Mark 13:20). When God decides it is time to end the persecution
of Satan/Antichrist against His elect, God will turn out all natural
light sources, (Joel 3:15, Rev. 6:12-13, Matt. 24:29); then the
sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, (Matt. 24:30); then
Jesus will be seen coming on the clouds with angelic accompaniment
and the sounding of the trumpet of God, (Matt. 24:31, I Thess. 4:16);
then the dead in Christ will be called from the grave, (I Thess.
4:16, I Cor. 15:52); then God will send forth the angels to gather
the living elect into the air, (I Thess. 4:17); then Christ and
the elect (both Israel and Gentiles) will return to heaven, (John
14:1-3); then the six trumpet judgments will fall upon the earth
to finish out the 70th Week of Daniel. The first day after the end
of the 70th Week of Daniel the death of the two witnesses will occur,
(Rev.11:7-10). Christ will immediately come to earth and gather
together all Israel for her salvation, (Rev. 10:7, 14:1; Rom. 11:25-27;
Zech. 14:4); then Christ will split the Mount of Olives and send
Israel to Azel for the duration of the bowl judgments, (Zech. 14:5);
then Christ shall return to heaven while the bowl judgments fall
upon the kingdom of Satan, (Rev. 14:14-16:21); then the final event
called Armageddon will occur, (Rev. 19:11-21). The parousia
of our great God and King will end with the beginning of the 1000
year reign of Christ on earth.
H.I. Hester, The Heart of the New Testament, (Liberty: The
Quality Press, Inc., 1979), 42.
S. Angus, Vulgate, The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia,
V. 5, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1939) 3059.
William W. Klein, "Paul's Use of Kalein: A Proposal," JTS 27 (March
Adolf G. Deissmann, Light From Ancient East, trans. Lionel
R.M. Strachan (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1910), 372.
Walvoord, "New Testament Words for the Lord's Coming," p. 285.
ibid., 284. Italic and emphasis added.
Richard R. Reiter, et al, The Rapture: Pre-, Mid-, or Post-Tribulational?
(Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1984), p. 30.
ibid., 238. This comment is taken from endnote number 78.
Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and
Other Early Christian Literature, Trans. and rev. by W.F. Arndt,
F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker, (Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 1979), 635.
James E. Frame, Epistle of St. Paul to The Thessalonians,
(Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1960), 123.
Leon Morris, The First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians,
in NICNT (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1984), 96-97.
Tracy L. Howard, "The Literary Unity of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11,"
GTJ 9 (Fall, 1988): 177.
D. Michael Martin, I and II Thessalonians in The New American
Commentary, (Nashville: Broadman and Holman Publishers, 1992),
Robert D. Culver, "A Neglected Millennial Passage from Saint Paul,"
Bsac 113 (April, 1956): 148.
John T. Mueller and Charles R. Erdman, s.v. parousia, ISBE,
Vol. IV (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1939), 2249-2251.
W. Harold Mare, "A Study of the New Testament Concept of the Parousia,"
in Current Issues in Biblical and Patristic Interpretation: Studies
in Honor of Merrill C. Tenney, (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1975),
Walvoord, "New Testament Words for the Lord's Coming," 285.
C.F. Hogg and W.E. Vine, The Epistles to the Thessalonians,
(Fincastle: Scripture Truth Book Co., 1959), 87
21. ibid., 88.
ibid. Hogg and Vine indicate that the beginning is prominent in
(I Thess.) 4:15, 5:23; II Thess. 2:1; I Cor. 15:23, Jas. 5:7,8;
2 Pet. 3:4; the course here (I Thess. 2:19) 3:13; Matt. 24:3,37,39;
and I John 2:28; the conclusion in II Thess. 2:8 and Matt. 24:27.
I. Howard Marshall, "The Parousia in the New Testament—And Today,"
in Worship, Theology and Ministry, M. Wilkins, et al, eds.
Please see footnote 1 in I. Howard Marshall, "The Parousia in the
New Testament—And Today," 194.
Walvoord, "New Testament Words for the Lord's Coming," 285.
Scholars debate the priority of James to I Thessalonians.
Frame, The Epistles of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, 4.
BADG, s.v. en, page 259.
D. Edmond Hiebert, The Thessalonian Epistles, (Chicago: Moody
Press, 1971), 315.
Morris, The First and Second Epistles to the Thessalonians,
R.C.H. Lenski, The Epistles of St. Peter, St. John and St. Jude,
(Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1945), 285. See also Mare,
"A Study of the New Testament Concept of the Parousia," 339.
D. Michael Martin, I and II Thessalonians, 99-100.
from Parousia #9, Fall 1998.